Disease Risks and Prevention
Diseases of concern in Estonia include hepatitis A and B, drug-resistant tuberculosis and, in forested areas in summer, tickborne encephalitis. Vaccination can protect you against hepatitis (and rabies, if you are at risk); for other conditions, protective measures appear below under Precautions.
See a Doctor Before You Travel
Visit a travel medicine specialist, or a doctor familiar with travel medicine, at least a month before your trip.
Recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control are below, but appropriate vaccines and medicines depend on many factors that are specific to each person. Inform your doctor:
- Where you are traveling within a country
- The length of your trip
- What types of activities you might do
- Other personal matters such as your age, medical and vaccine history, and current medical state
Many hospitals and many county health departments have a Travel Medicine office. A directory of private travel clinics is available at the International Society of Travel Medicine, www.istm.org.
|Hepatitis A or immune globulin (IG)||Recommended for all unvaccinated people traveling to or working in countries with an intermediate or high level of hepatitis A virus infection where exposure might occur through food or water. Cases of travel-related hepatitis A can also occur in travelers to developing countries with "standard" tourist itineraries, accommodations, and food consumption behaviors.|
|Hepatitis B||Recommended for all unvaccinated persons who might be exposed to blood or body fluids, have sexual contact with the local population, or be exposed through medical treatment (e.g., for an accident).|
Vaccination recommended only for:
|Routine||Before traveling, update any vaccinations you would normally receive, such as measles/mumps/rubella (MMR) vaccine, diphtheria/pertussis/tetanus (DPT) vaccine, poliovirus vaccine.|
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Most people infected with the virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. However, some will become seriously ill and require medical attention. Older people and those with underlying medical conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, or cancer are more likely to develop serious illness. Anyone can get sick with COVID-19 and become seriously ill or die at any age.
The best way to prevent and slow down transmission is to be well informed about the disease and how the virus spreads. Protect yourself and others from infection by staying at least 1 meter (3 feet) apart from others, wearing a properly fitted mask, and washing your hands or using an alcohol-based rub frequently. Vaccinations also are available from healthcare providers.
The virus can spread from an infected person’s mouth or nose in small liquid particles when they cough, sneeze, speak, sing, or breathe. These particles range from larger respiratory droplets to smaller aerosols. It is important to practice respiratory etiquette, for example by coughing into a flexed elbow and staying home to self-isolate if feeling unwell.
Entry and Exit Requirements
Are there COVID-related entry requirements?
Is a negative COVID-19 test required for entry?
|When you visit areas with ticks and fleas, wear shoes, not sandals, and tuck pants into socks. After a hike, check for attached ticks, especially in skin creases such as the back of the knee or behind the ear.|
|Avoid exposure to known TB patients in crowded environments such as hospitals, prisons, or homeless shelters. Avoid unpasteurized dairy products.|
|Food- and water-borne illness|
Observe food safety practices:
|HIV and other infections|
Pack a Travel Health Kit
A travel health kit serves three purposes: to manage any pre-existing conditions, prevent illnesses related to traveling, and take care of minor health matters.
When packing medications for travel, remember the following considerations.
- Original containers: All medications should be carried in their original containers with clear labels, so the contents are easily identified. Although many travelers like placing medications into small containers or packing them in the daily-dose containers, officials at ports of entry may require proper identification of medications.
- Prescriptions: Travelers should carry copies of all prescriptions, including their generic names.
- Physician notes: For controlled substances and injectable medications, travelers are advised to carry a note from the prescribing physician on letterhead stationery.
- Restricted medications: Travelers should be aware that certain medications are not permitted in certain countries. If there is a question about these restrictions, particularly with controlled substances, travelers are recommended to contact the embassy or consulate of the destination country.
- Availability: A travel health kit is useful only when it is available. It should be carried with the traveler at all times (e.g., in a carry-on bag). Due to airline security rules, sharp objects and some liquids and gels must remain in checked luggage.
Note: World Trade Press is not in the healthcare business and accepts no liability for statements on this page.
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